At 309 units per 10,000 employees, robot density in German manufacturing industry is the third highest worldwide. At the same time, the number of people employed in Germany reached 44 million in 2017, the highest figure since reunification. The rapid spread of industrial robots hasn't made a dent in employment figures: today, new tasks have been created for the workforce alongside once performed by machines. These are the results of the latest study by the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF).
"The results of the ZEW study on the labor market confirm what we are observing in leading industrial nations across the world," comments Junji Tsuda, president of the International Federation of Robotics. "The modernization of production shifts hazardous, unhealthy and monotonous work to the machines. In the vast majority of cases, only certain activities of a job are automated and not the entire spectrum of an employee's work." However, if jobs are cut - the ZEW reports that 5% of employees were replaced within five years - these losses are compensated for by new jobs overall.
In Germany, the rise in the use of machines has allowed employment to grow by 1%. This development looks set to continue in future: based on details from companies surveyed, the ZEW estimates that further automation and digitalization in industry will generate a 1.8% rise in employment by 2021.
This development tallies with experience from the 1990s onwards with the computer boom.
The large-scale use of IT in companies did render traditional processing jobs superfluous. But according to calculations by the ZEW, from 1995 to 2011 employment rose by just under 0.2% per year.
The London School of Economics (LSE) recently published a study entitled Robots at Work on the use of industrial robots in 17 developed economies between 1993 and 2007. LSE head of research, Guy Michaels, summarised the key results at a Messe Munich press conference on automatica 2018: "Productivity has improved by around 15% due to industrial robots. At the same time, the proportion of low-skilled labour dropped and pay increased slightly. Industrial robots don't have any significant impact on the number of employees overall."
IFR position paper: https://ifr.org/ifr-press-releases/news/position-paper
ZEW survey: https://bit.ly/2qrSBgj
International Federation of Robotics: www.ifr.org
There is a lot of recent interest in the use of the Stirling engine due to its high efficiency. Stirling-cycle engines were invented in the beginning of 19th century and were commonly used until arrival of Otto cycle engine. Stirling engines are external combustion engines designed as sealed systems with an inert working fluid, usually either helium or hydrogen.
The workshop addresses technical challenges that have delayed adoption of Stirling engine technology:
New materials and technologies may breathe new life into the Sterling engine which has unique advantages for applications in the space, auto and marine industries, as well as in distributed power applications.
Attendance to this event is by personal invitation only. We are fully booked, no more registrations accepted. This announcement appears as a matter of record only.
Publications on Sterling engine technology: